Agricultural Sciences






VOL. III                                                                                                                                       December 2012


Feruke – Bello, Y. M and Odeyemi, O


The Morphological Characteristics of Water in Earthen Ponds.                                  176




Fatubarin, A and Olojugba, M. R


Challenging Environmental Issues In Sustainable Development Of Nigeria


– A Theoretical Review                                                                                              186




Apata O.M. and Fawemi, O.E.


Assessment of Use of Mass Media in the Dissemination of Agricultural


Information in Ekiti State, Nigeria.                                                                            205




Sanusi R. A.; Kuti, O.T.O and Suleman.M.


Income and Expenditure Differentials between Rural and Urban Households


in Odeda Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria.                                       214




Sanni, T. A. Akanbi C.T. Ogundele J. O.and Abegunde T.A.


Study of Physicochemical Properties of Fruit Sheets from  


Pulp Mixes of Papaya, Pineapple and Banana.                                                           227




Folorunso, O.R., Onibi, G.E. and Laseinde, E.A.O.


Growth Performance and Drinking Preference of Broiler Chickens


on Different Colours of Water.                                                                                  240




Apata, T.G., Ogunwande, I.S., Sedewo, M.O. Ogunyinka, A.I and Samuel, K.


Economics Analysis of Urban Farming as a Livelihood Options:


Evidence from Urban Farmers in Southwest, Nigeria                                                248




Ogunsipe M.H., Adejumo, J. O. and Agbede, J.O.


Evaluation of the Growth Performance, Nutrients Digestibility and


Economics of Production of Rabbits Fed Millet Offal-Based Diets                         265




Adebayo, R A and  Idoko, J.E.


Influences of Callosobruchus Maculatus (F) [Coleoptera: Bruchidae] Infestation


On Food Quality Of Three Local Varieties Of Cowpea In Akure Ondo State         277




Awoniyi S. O. and Aiyesimoju, A.B.


Climate Information Dissemination to Rural Farmers: An Assessment of


Climate Change Adaptation Campaign in Nigeria.                                                    287.












Babatola L.A., O.B. Adewoyin, R.A. Olokuntoye, J.O. Bifarin and A. Adeeko


Evaluation of Post-harvest Handling of Pepper Fruit (Capsicum Frutescens)


by Marketers in Ibadan Metropolis, Oyo State, Nigeria.                                            301




Folorunso O. R, Fadiyimu, A. A.,  Adeyeye, S. A., and Sule, K


Consumption Pattern of Unconventional Sources of Animal Protein in


Selected Local Government Areas of Ondo State.                                                    308




Otutu, O.L. Olajide, R. and Ikuomola D S


Production and Evaluation of Fish Protein Concentrate


 “Type B” From Tilapia Fish.                                                                                      316




Ogunyemi O.O. and Agbelusi, E.A


Preliminary Report on the Avifauna of Cross-River State Nigeria.                           323




Abolaji, J.A and Ogunrewo, J.O


Information Availability and Accessibility as Determinants of livelihood options


among the Retirees of Obafemi Awolowo University (O.A.U.) Ile Ife Osun State. 329




Oluwafemi, R.A., Akpodiete, O.J    


Response of Weaned Pigs to Enzyme Supplemented Palm Kernel Cake (Pkc) As Replacement For Maize In Their Diets.                                                                344




Kolawole, J. A.


Problems Associated with Information Utilization and Decision Making


Among Agricultural and Social Sciences Students in Nigeria.                                 350




Awolala D. O* and Ajibefun I. A.


Modelling Farmers’ Decisions on Climate Risks Adaptation: Policy Issues


from the Multinomial Logit Analysis in Ekiti State, Nigeria.                        364




Olojugba, M.R and Oke, D.O.


Combined use of Tithonia diversifolia and NPK fertilizer for improving


soil fertility and Maize yield in on a humid Alfisol.                                                  378
















The INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE AND FOOD SCIENCEwas established with the primary objective of providing a forum for presentation and review of research results on Agriculture and Food Science that can be readily accessed by researchers and development leaders in Africa and other developing countries, and all those concerned with agricultural development issues in the region. The most important characteristic of the Journal is that it addresses in an integrated manner all aspects of Agricultural and Developmental Economics, Crop Science, Food Science and Animal ’ Production.


The Journal publishes original research papers and reviews dealing with Agricultural and Food Sciences in different fields of specialization as outlined below:


1.         Agricultural Production, Utilization and Sustainable practices: Plant and animal husbandry including precision agriculture and aquaculture. Impact of scientific and technological developments on yields and quality. Plant and Animal breeding and genetics, Industrial applications for plants, plant products, animal products and marine products as human food or  animal feed.


2.         Food Science Technology, Biochemistry and Food processing and safety: Human and animal nutrition. Enhancing health with functional foods, nutraceuticals or food supplementation. Testing, including clinical tests, model animals and, in vitro testing systems, Development, production and processing of human and animal food beverages. Measurement of food and ingredient functionalities, Chemistry and biochemistry of foods, feeds, ingredients and components. Properties of biological molecules. Processing/storage. Enzyme properties and applications. Analytical/diagnostic methodology. Biochemical pathways and mechanisms. Bioactivity. Microbiological food safety, including on-farm safety management, epidemiology of food-borne illness, novel process and packaging, and detection of food-borne pathogens. Food raw materials and quality. Food structure and physical properties. Physical description of processing and product properties of raw materials. Food toxicology and safety evaluation of genetically modified organisms. Application of risk assessment and risk management techniques.


3.         Molecular Biotechnology: Applications of biotechnology to plants, animals and microorganisms as they relate to agriculture, food production and processing, and fermentation science. Molecular Biology: Applications of genetic modification and molecular biology to plants, animals and microorganisms as they relate to agriculture, food production and processing, and fermentation science


4.         AgroForesrty & Agroclimatology: Environmental influences on and impaqts of agriculture   including forestry (effects of and on air, water and soil quality). Safety and sustainability of    agricultural practices.




The Journal also publishes Short Communications dealing with original results not warranting publication as full papers. It has a book review and advertisement sections. 'To encourage dialogue on topical issues, the Journal has a ‘Forum Section' where issues of current contention in Agriculture and Food Science, including socioeconomics and rural development will be discussed. All opinions, and articles published in the Journal reflect views of the authors and not necessarily those of the IJAFS.




Submission of a paper implies that it has not been submitted or published elsewhere, and that the authors accept the conditions for publication outlined in the Journal. Once accepted for publication, authors transfer copyright of their articles to the IJAFS, unless expressly exempted in writing by the copyright holders.






The INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE AND FOOD SCIENCEis copyrighted, and those wishing to use illustrations or data from the Journal in other publications should obtain permission from the Publisher, and include a line acknowledging the Journal as the source of material. The Journal is abstracted in CABI, TROPAG, SSRN and Chemical Abstracts.




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Corresponding author is entitled to one printed copy of the Journal containing the published article. Additional copies of the journal could be obtained on request and on payment of subscription costs as indicated below:           


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All inquiries, article submissions and payments should be addressed to:


Editorial Secretariat,






College of Agricultural Sciences, JABU


PMB 5006, Osun State, Nigeria.


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Editorial Board




Editor-in-Chief: Prof A.O.Adeola


Associate Editors: Prof A.G. Ologun; Dr T.O. Abegunde


Managing Editor: Dr V.N. Enujiugha


Scientific Editor: Dr O.O. Aina


Business Manager/Co-editor: Dr T.G. Apata




International Editorial Advisory Board:


Professor Daryl B. Lund [University of Wisconsin]


Professor Negussie Retta [Addis Ababa University]


Professor Linus U. Opara [University of Stellenbosch, South Africa].


Professor O.A. Ogunsua [Joseph Ayo Babalola University]


Professor T. Sagari Nokoe [ University of Dare Salam]


Professor O. Odeyemi [Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife]


Professor A. Akinyemiju [Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife]


Professor Julius Okojie [Executive Secretary, National Universities Commission]


Professor A. Adegeye [ University of Ibadan]




ISSN: 2171-7156


















Scope of the Journal




Authors can submit the following types of Articles




1.       Original Articles: This includes studies that involve substantial novel research in the realms of science, technology and innovation (ST & I). Such articles typically occupy 8-12 pages when printed.




2.       Short/Rapid communication, studies that fall short of the original articles (e.g. preliminary experiences, novel hypotheses or commentaries) may be submitted as short communication. Manuscript for rapid communication include: results that are of special significant or of current and extreme interest. Manuscript for either short or rapid communication, should yield not more than 4 pages when printed, including illustrations, Tables and References. When submitting authors indicate clearly 'short or rapid communication' on the envelope or correspondence




3.       Commentary: Commentaries are meant to discuss issues of particular significance to technology. Commentaries may include highlights of significant papers, in any issue of (IJAFS) field notes or observations, poignant opinions or other timely information or comments. Commentaries should not exceed 1500 words with 5 or fewer references




4.       Reviews: Reviews are comprehensive analysis of specific topics in technological breakthroughs. Reviews are solicited by the editor. However, authors may also submit proposal for reviews, in which case authors should first send an outline of the proposed paper for initial consideration.




5.       Submission and Manuscript


          Online submission: This is the preferred mode of submission. Online submission ensures speedy processing. Paper may be submitted as e-mail attachment to the Editor-in-Chief ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.) and send a copy to the Business Manager/co-editor ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.).  The paper should be submitted as a single file in Microsoft Word Format (no other formats will be accepted) and the file should be of manageable size (i.e 5Mb) so that it can be e-mailed to referees. To aid in file management, please identify the first author and month and year of submission in the file name, e.g Adeola et al Aug 2010 doc. If acknowledgement of submission is not received within a week please send a reminder to the Editor-in-Chief, or The Business Manager.




Hard copy submission: Authors who are unable to access the internet should send three hard copies (original and two copies) and a CD ROM containing the exact hardcopy to the editorial office. Although hard copy submissions may take longer review time than online, both types will however go through the same review process.




Submission of manuscript implies that the result or opinion reported have not been published or being considered for publication elsewhere (except in conference proceedings). The journal assumes that all authors of multi-authored paper agreed to its submission to (IJAFS). A covering message or letter indicating these statements should accompany the submission.








Preparation of Manuscript


General presentation: The manuscript should be presented clearly and concisely in English. Manuscripts must be prepared (preferably with MS word package) using 12 point New Times Roman for, double or 1.5 line-spaced and lines numbered along the left margin only on one side of A4 size paper (210 – 297mm) with at least 3cm margins on all sides. All typing should be left justified. Pages including figures and tables, should be numbered consecutively in the bottom middle with the title page as page l.




Manuscript should contain the following sections (except for review and commentary articles): Title page; Abstract; Introduction; Materials and Methods; Results, Discussion (Results and Discussion could be combined); conclusion and references.           




Title Page: The first page of the manuscript should contain the title of the article, which should be concise but explicit, the surname and forenames (in full) of authors, full address of each author telephone, fax number and email address of the corresponding author (identified by an asterisk) and a short/running title of not more than 45 characters, including spaces. Use superscript to relate authors to their addresses.                                   




Abstract: The next pages should contain the title and abstract in English. Abstract should be less than 250 words and should provide sufficient information to give the reader a full understanding of the content of the article. Paragraphs, footnotes, references and undefined abbreviations should be avoided.                         




Keywords: Up to five keywords, separated by semi-column, should be provided to assist the reader and facilitate information retrieval.                                                                                                                     




Body of text: The title of the article should be typed in upper-case letters and bold. All other headings should be typed in upper-case letters and bolded while sub-headings should be in lower-case and bolded. The main headings should be separated by an empty line and not indentation. The Sl unit system must be used. Standard abbreviations may be used without definition, and specialized abbreviations should be used only after they are defined when they first appear. Use capital 'T' for Table and 'F' for figure. Mathematical formulae should be carefully typed with symbols, correct alignment and must be adequately spaced. Each formula should be displayed on a single line if possible. Statistical evaluation of results should be described briefly and if necessary supported by references.                                                                                                                              




Introduction: Provide a survey of literature and clearly justify the need for the study.                               




Materials and Methods: This should be informative enough to enable readers to interpret the results obtained. Particular attention should be paid to the design, analysis and statistics. State where applicable, the type of post - ANOVA test used. References for the method used should be included.                                                  




Results: Should be concise. Avoid reproducing information already in tables.                                            




Discussion: This section may be combined with results but generally should be separate. It should indicate clearly the significance and implications of the results obtained. Inferences and opinions should be distinguished from facts, and should not duplicate results except to introduce or clarify points. Reference should be made to published literature.                                                                                                                   








Conclusion: A concise summary of major findings. Acknowledgments: Financial contributors, pre-paper reviews, etc. may be acknowledged where necessary.                                                                                 




References: Only published articles (journals and proceedings) or books may be cited. In addition, articles with evidence of journal acceptance are considered as "in press" and are also citable. The reference list should be arranged alphabetically. Authors should be referred to in text by name and year (Harvard system). Examples:                                                                                                                                                                     




For Journals, list as:


Dixon, A.G.O. and Nukenine, E.N. Statistical analysis of cassava yield trials with the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model. African Journal of Root and Tuber Crops  Vol. 3, No 1. (1997) pp. 46-50


Within the text, references should be given as: Meaza et al. (2007), or ... similar results have been obtained (Meaza et aI., 2007).




For proceedings, list as:


Aina, O.O., Dixon, A.G.O.and Akinrinde, E.A. Influence of shoot and root characteristics of cassava genotypes on yields in Nigeria. African Crop Science Conference Proceedings  Vol. 5 (2001) pp. 1119-1125




For Books, list as:


DeVries, J. and Toenniessen, G. Securing The Harvest Biotechnology, Breeding and Seed Systems for African Crops. The Cromwell Press, Trowbridge, Wiltshire, UK.2001 208pp. For electronic resource materials (online publications) list as:


Zachary, G.P. Africa plays the rice card. Foreign Policy. May/June 2008 (web-exclusive story). php? story id = 4306. Accessed 26 August 2008.




For Thesis, list as:


Surname and initials of author, year of submission, title of thesis, degree for which the thesis was submitted. Name of the University. Personal communication may be cited only in the text, giving names, date, and institution or organization of source of information and should not appear in the reference list.




Tables and Figures: Tables and Figures should be self-explanatory, without reference to the text or other tables and figures. Captions should be brief but should adequately describe the contents. The word, 'Table' should be in uppercase letters, and should be numbered with Arabic numerals. Figure captions should be typed on a separate sheet of paper. In the text spell out the word, 'Table’ but abbreviate Figure to Fig. Capitalize the first letter of table column and row headings. Footnotes are designated with superscript lowercase letters.




Graphs should be boxed and ordinates and abscissions marked with index lines. Illustrations should be in black and white and of a size that allows a reduction of up to 50%. If color prints are necessary, the cost of production will be charged to the authors. Figures should be numbered on the reverse side with authors' names, shortened title, and the top indicated.




Paper Revision: An author receiving editorial recommendations for revision should submit the revised manuscript within 3 months; otherwise; longer intervals will be treated as new manuscripts.




Page proofs will normally be sent to the author for correction.


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